Dr. Siham Ahmed Balla
Community Medicine is the science that deals with the health of the communities rather than the individuals. It is the science of what has been previously known as public health, preventive medicine, social medicine and community health.
Community medicine is one of the departments in the Faculty of Medicine – University of Khartoum. The department was established in 1951 by Professor Anees Mohamed Ali Alshami who was the first head department. The department educates under and postgraduate medical students in the field of community medicine.
The department has the following units:
1. Epidemiology Unit ( Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Research Methodology)
2. EndemicDiseases Unit (Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases)
3. Primary Health Care Unit
4. Envenimement & Occupation Health Unit
5. Health Management Unit
6. Research Unit
7. Support unit
To graduate a community-oriented doctor who is a:
- Health promoter and care provider
- Disease preventer
- Community and team leader
The mission of the department is:
- To produce a medical graduate who is capable in interacting with the community through understanding the holistic approach of health, knowing the actual needs of the community to achieve physical, mental and social wellbeing to lead socially and mentally productive life.
- To provide education and knowledge that aims at scientific excellence, professionalism, and social responsibility.
- To set high standards of leadership in provision of health care, education, research and development of effective and equitable health services in partnership with the health care delivery system.
- To contribute significantly in the field of medical education and research on the local, regional and international scene.
- To continue high values of student initiatives in primary health care, community- based activities and support innovation in this field .
The objectives of the department are:
1. Education of medical students.
2. Contribution to community development and health services.
3. Support basic and applied research especially in areas relevant to the need of the community.
4. Conduct post graduate studies in community medicine
The curriculum of community medicine is taught to students of the first medical class up to the fifth, and by the end of the fifth class, the student should complete a research in a topic of interest.
1. Introduction to community health
Introduction to community medicine - concepts of health & disease - man and the environment - biomedical concepts - ecological concepts - psychosocial concepts - health definition, dimension, determinants and indicators - concepts of wellbeing - Introduction of population genetics and biostatistics.
2. Health delivery system
Principles of health policies & strategies, the history of the health services in the Sudan - organization of health services - organization and functions of the federal and states health directorate - the health centres - rural hospitals.
3. Environment and Health
Social and cultural characteristics of the community. Water sources & treatment - safe & wholesome water - water pollution - water purification - water quality criteria - water quality standards - drinking water surveillance - air pollution - ventilation - lighting - noise – radiation - effects of meteorological environment - air temperature - solid wastes disposal and control - excreta disposal - medical entomology - arthropods of medical importance - arthropod borne disease - food safety and food borne disease.
4. Primary Health Care
Health care of the community - concepts of health care - health systems - levels of health care - comprehensive health care -basic health services.
Primary health care; definition, principles, elements of PHC - health status & health problems - health care delivery system - health needs analysis - resources and health care systems.
This consist of two parts
(A) Data & information: health information systems; components, uses and sources - the census registration of vital events - sample registration system - notification of disease - hospital records - disease registration and records - epidemiological surveillance - environmental health data - health manpower - population surveys.
(B) Medical statistics: types of data /variables - descriptive statistics - measures of central values and location - normal distribution - measures of dispersion and skewness - sample and population - estimation & test of significance - correlation & regression.
Principles, definition and basic measurements in epidemiology - morbidity and mortality measurements, measurements of disability - indicators of the health status - disease surveillance - distribution of disease by time, place and person - association & causation - concepts of disease causation - theories of disease causation - screening - epidemiological methods - descriptive, analytical and experimental epidemiology - health need assessment.
7. Communicable Diseases
Epidemiology of infectious disease - dynamics of disease transmission - routes of transmission - the susceptible host - incubation period - communicable period - secondary attack rate - specific defenses, active and passive immunity - immunizing agents - disease prevention & control - immunization schedule - disinfection - investigations of an epidemic - prevention/ and control of major epidemic & endemic diseases in Sudan.
8. Student Research Project
Research proposal, research objectives and methods - literature review - study designs - data management - writing scientific; report or paper - critical appraisal of scientific papers
9. Health Care Management
Health systems management, planning, monitoring and evaluation - cost effectiveness - cost benefit analysis - health need assessment - health management and disaster.
10. Health of special groups:
The concepts, principles and practice of occupational health, mental health, reproductive health, school health and healthcare of the elderly.
Primary Health Care Rotation:
This course will be coordinated by the department of Community Medicine so as to include participation from the departments of Paediatrics, Obstetric and Gynaecology & Medicine. The course mainly consists of clinical training in the health centres.
Concepts and philosophy of primary health care, PHC, programmes & activities - reproductive health - EPI - CDD - ARI - Nutrition & growth - school health - essential drugs - common health problems - the health system - health centers function - PHC structure - PHC Personnel. Primary healthcare practices, clinical exposure to primary health care practice so as to achieve the communication & clinical skills, skills enumerated in the objectives.
The students spend two weeks in a health area (Rural Hospital) and the satellite of PHC around it as part of the curriculum. The aim is to graduate community oriented physicians especially in Sudan.. Such medical students should contribute in providing primary health care addressing the actual needs of the community. The objectives are:
- To make a community diagnosis, listing local health problems, the environmental and behavioral factors …etc.
- To plan health interventions to deal with the different health problems.
- To discuss the role of the Doctor responsible for a rural hospital and health care area (as the leader of the health team).
- To describe the health activities, service setting, its structure, organization, coverage and efficiency.. ect.
- To list the health cadres in a health area and calculate population ratios.
- To define the responsibilities and roles of the health care provider.
- To identify the members of the health team at district health area level.
Evaluation of rural residency is by self assessments according to log book, individual student`s report and writing short note essay in the final fifth year examination consider one aspect of his her experience in rural residency.
2. Tutorials ( small group teaching)
3. Attachment to health centers.
4. Attachment to rural hospitals.
5. Field visits.
7. Student promotion research.
Post graduate studies
· Medical Doctorate in Clinical community medicine
· Master degree in community medicine.
· Medical Doctorate (MD by research)
· Master degree in community health(proposal).
· PhD community medicine and PhD community health(proposal).
It was established in 2008 to raise the standards in research conduct. The unit provides training, consultations, supervision and conduct of research. The unit collaborates with all departments of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum and the other universities and concerned bodies to conduct short training courses.
Links and Partnerships:
The department has complete or partial links and partnerships with the following:
- Education Development Centre EDC, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum
- Other departments in the Faculty of Medicine U. of K.
- Ministry of Health.
- UN agencies.
Heads of the department
- Professor Anees Alshami ( The pioneer) 1951
- Doctor Maamoun Yosif Hamid
- Professor Mustafa Khougli
- Doctor Abdelrahman Eltom Zeiad
- Professor Basheer Hamad
- Doctor Abdelrahman Eltom Zeiad 1990
- Doctor Mohamed Elfatih Ali Ahmed 1993
- Professor Mohammed Ali Awadelkareem 1995
- Doctor Kamil Mergani Ali Shaaban 1998
- Doctor Taha Ahmed Elmukashfi 2007
- Doctor Zeidan Abdu Zeidan 2010
- Doctor Siham Ahmed Balla 2010
Post graduate studies
Requirements for Admission in MCM
Program The student should submit the documents as per the Graduate College general regulations for master degree registration and other internal regulations:
1. MBBS from the University of Khartoum or its equivalent.
2. Certificate of the permanent registration in the Sudan Medical Council.
3. Sit and pass a selection examination.
4. Candidate should have good speaking and
writing in English language
Supporting Resources for the candidates
1. Electronic libraries.
2. Libraries in the Medical and Health Sciences
1. Wireless access to internet
Raja Ali Adam. Department of Community Medicine . Tel :+249-155662023
Mr. Adil Abdalla Fadul
Graduate College, Medical and Health Science Board
Registration for 2015: deadline 10th August 2015
Selection exam : 13th August 2015
Study started on : 1st Sept 2015
Examination & Evaluation Regulations
The University of Khartoum general regulations for postgraduate examinations shall be strictly followed:
1. A student must satisfy, separately, an attendance of at least 75% of each of the approved courses and training periods.
2. Field work portfolios and assignments must be completed and submitted before the final examinations of each semester.
3. A student, who absents himself /herself from examination (s), without prior notification with acceptable reasons, will be considered failure.
4. A Student must pass written examinations and dissertation oral examination independently.
5. To be promoted to the second year a student must pass all the final examinations of both semesters; supplementary and substitutes inclusive.
6. Supplementary and substitute examinations of both semesters will be offered, together, at the end of each academic year.
7. A student who fails in no more than one third of the subjects will be allowed to sit for supplementary examinations and be awarded grade pass in that particular subject(s).
8. A student who fails in more than one third to less than 50% of the subjects must re sit all the subjects.
9. A student who passes the re sit examination(s) will obtain a pass grade in re sit subject(s).
10. A student who fails in more than 50% of the subjects or fails in any of supplementary or re sit examinations will be dismissed and will not be allowed to register again for the program
Award of the Degree
The University Senate will award the degree of master in community medicine (MCM) on recommendation of Graduate College Board